Axon


Axon.jpgThe axon is the main conducting unit of the nuron, which is capable of conveying electrical signals along distances that range from as short as 0.1 mm to as long as 2m. Many axons split into several branches, thereby conveying information to different targets. Many neurons actually don't have axons.

The axons of many neurons are wrapped in a myelin sheat, which is composed of membranes of intersticial cells and is wrapped around the axons, which forms several concentric layers. An axon is one of two types of protoplasmic prostrusions that extrude from the cell body of a neuron,
and the other type being the dendrites.

Axons make contact with other cells - usually other nuerons but sometimes muscle or gland cells, at junctions called synapses. The membrane of the axon closely adjoins the membrane of the target cell at a synapse. Special molecular structures serve to transmit electrical or electrochemical signals across the gap.

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